Skillet Soufflé Pancake

Unsalted butter (for pan)
3 Tbsp. plus ¼ cup (88 g) granulated sugar
4 large egg whites
¼ cup (31 g) all-purpose flour
½ tsp. baking powder
¼ tsp. kosher salt
2 large egg yolks
½ cup whole milk
1 tsp. finely grated lemon zest
½ tsp. vanilla extract
Powdered sugar and fresh fruit (for serving)

Place a rack in middle of oven; preheat to 325°F. Butter an 8" nonstick skillet, then sprinkle with 3 Tbsp. (38 g) granulated sugar. Pour out any excess sugar that doesn’t stick to pan.
Combine 4 large egg whites and remaining ¼ cup (50 g) granulated sugar in a medium heatproof bowl and set over a medium saucepan filled with 1" of barely simmering water (do not let bowl touch water). Heat, whisking constantly, until sugar is dissolved and an instant-read thermometer registers 140°F, about 5 minutes.
Immediately remove bowl from saucepan and transfer egg white mixture to the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with the whisk attachment. Beat on medium speed until meringue is glossy and stiff peaks form, about 4 minutes.
Meanwhile, whisk ¼ cup (31 g) all-purpose flour, ½ tsp. baking powder, and ¼ tsp. kosher salt in a small bowl to combine. Whisk 2 large egg yolks, ½ cup whole milk, 1 tsp. finely grated lemon zest, and ½ tsp. vanilla extract in a large bowl. Sift in dry ingredients and whisk until batter is smooth.
Using a rubber spatula, gently fold one quarter of meringue into batter to lighten. Fold in remaining meringue in 2 batches, taking care not to deflate batter. Gently transfer batter to prepared pan, and carefully smooth top with a small offset spatula.
Bake pancake until doubled in volume and it springs back slightly when lightly pressed, 23–25 minutes (do not open the oven door during the first 20 minutes or the pancake may deflate).
Remove pancake from oven and dust with powdered sugar. Serve with fresh fruit.

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